The Impact of Cromwell on Irish Fanning Fortunes

“In March 1649, Parliament commissioned Oliver Cromwell to lead an army of invasion into Ireland. Defeat of the Irish at the battle of Rathmines enabled Cromwell to land unopposed at Dublin in 1649. Cromwell, a Puritan, “believed he was an instrument of divine retribution for (alleged) atrocities committed by Catholics against Protestants in 1641 and he accordingly gave orders to deny mercy to Catholics.” His campaign was savage. Cromwell left Ireland in May 1650. The subjugation of Ireland was completed in May 1652.

Parliament was now faced with settling its enormous debts resulting from the war in Ireland. The adventurers or investors had been offered two and a half million acres of Irish land which were to be confiscated after the rebellion was put down. The lands of the defeated Irish and Old English Catholics were declared confiscated and preparations begun for its distribution to the various people to whom the government was indebted.

In order to facilitate this redistribution a survey of the land was undertaken. The act for settling Ireland was passed by the English parliament in August 1652. While the land was being surveyed the government was deciding who should forfeit land. Degrees of guilt were established and penalties defined. The result was that owners of Irish land, whether they were Catholic, protestant or Old English were to suffer. Some were dispossessed totally; others forfeited one fifth, one third, two thirds or three quarters of their land depending on whether their part in the rebellion was a major or minor one. They were to be recompensed from forfeited land west of the Shannon by an area to the proportion they were entitles to retain.

44,210 names were recorded on certificates of transplantation by May 1, 1654. A new Ireland emerged after the Cromwellian Plantation.

The following records were taken from “The Irish Gentry When Cromwell Came to Ireland” by John O’Hart 1887. Online at Internet Archives American Libraries. :

Persons Transplanted In Ireland from Co Limerick: Frances, Madalen, Martin and Mary Fanninge.

From Co Tipperary: Nicholas Ffanninge of Clonegall, Edmond Ffanninge of Gortfy and Wm. Ffanninge of Ffarrenroe.

Connaught Certificates-Transplanters 1653-1654: Inrolments of the Certificates of the Commissioners appointed for hearing and determining the claims of Transplanted Persons in the Province of Connaught and the County of Clare: Edward Fitz-Francis Fanning, Michael Fanning, Thomas Fitz-Clement Fanning, Thomas Fitz-Patrick Fanning, Nicholas Fanning, Alderman, William Fanning.

Book of Survey and Distribution: Nicholas Fanning and John McRory (proprietors in 1641) of  lands denominated Lower Englandstown and Upper Englandstown(Co Limerick). These lands were forfeited and conveyed to Brook Bridges.

James Ffaning had lands confiscated in the Barony of Knocktopher, Co Kilkenny. Names of persons in the Grants, under the Acts of Settlement: Jeffrey and William Fanning.

The Power Family Pedigree has Jeffry Fanning of Fanningstown, Co Tipperary marrying Gyles, daughter of Thomas Power (who died 1637) and Margaret Butler. In the reign of Charles 11 (1860-) Geoffry Fanning of Ballingarry forfeited lands.

Land Distribution before and After Cromwell

The above map is from The Ireland Story- Irish History, Maps of Ireland

The Down Survey

The Down Survey maps completed between 1656 and 1658, are now online free at http://downsurvey.tcd.ie/.

These maps were completed after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland to facilitate the transfer of Irish Catholic land to English Protestant owners. Land being given to soldiers and those who helped finance the war in Ireland.

“A new Ireland emerged after the Cromwellian Plantation. Land ownership and political authority passed from the older inhabitants to the new colonists, from Irish and Old English Catholics to a landed ascendancy of English Protestants who were to control the life of Ireland until the twentieth century” This quote is from an excellent article by Catherine Donovan and is on the Clare County Library site.

I have been able to trace my Fanning ancestors to Lissaroon just north of Thurles in Co Tipperary north. They are said to have arrived there in 1741. My earliest found ancestor was William Fanning born c 1731 and died 1801. I don’t know where they came from but it would have been perhaps Co Limerick or Ballingarry in Co Tipperary. They seemed to be fairly well off by the size of the house and interior decorations and also by the fact that the land at Lissaroon was prime agricultural land.

After Cromwell’s conquest of Ireland and the resulting redistribution of land ownership the Fannings in Ireland suffered a reversal of fortune. Prior to this time they had been wealthy and fairly powerful land owners.

In 1660 Charles II was restored to the English throne.  The majority of the Irish did not however get their lands back. Irish who could prove they were innocent of any involvement in the Irish rebellion against English rule could have their lands back but the courts were abolished before the Irish could have their claims heard! A small number, mostly Old English, succeeded in being restores to their former lands.

Those whose land was forfeited were to be given land in Connaught hence the saying “To Hell or Connaught”. Some of the Fannings were meant to be transplanted but whether they did leave or not is not confirmed. The whole transplantation process was a bureaucratic nightmare and took so long that by the time of the Restoration of Charles II many people had not moved.

This Down Survey shows that throughout Ireland nearly all Fanning land holdings were lost and transferred to English Protestant owners with the notable exception of Jeffrey Fanning who was or became Protestant. The Book of Survey and Distribution notes that a Geoffrey Fanning of Ballingarry forfeited his lands under King Charles the second.

The Down Survey also shows that the landowning Fanning family members  lived in Ballingarry in Co Tipperary, Co Limerick and some in Co Clare and a few in Co Galway and Co Kilkenny. They do not show up in other counties at this time.

Co Tipperary:

Townland of LISSAROON
Townland of Lissaroon Co Tipperary Ireland in the Down Survey 1656-1658

Townland of Lissaroon Co Tipperary Ireland in the Down Survey 1656-1658

Down Survey Name: Lisroane

1641 Owner(s): John, Henry St (Protestant)Teige, Teig (Catholic);Edmund, Edmun (Catholic)Purcell of Loghmore, Theo (Catholic);Dermott, Dermot (Catholic)Denogh, Denog (Catholic)Fogerty, Conner (Catholic)

1670 Owner(s): Rogers, Richard (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Elliogurty Parish: Inchyfogurty Profitable land: 95 plantation acres Forfeited: 95 plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 13 English: 13

There were no Fannings listed in Lissaroon at the time of the Down Survey.

Townland of CURRAHEENDUFF

Down Survey Name: Ballingarry

1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic)1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of COALBROOK

Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of CLASHDUFF Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of EARLSHILL Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of KNOCKALONGA Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of GARRANACOOL Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of GORTNASMUTTAUN Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 5 English: 3 Irish: 2

Townland of FARRANRORY UPPER Down Survey Name: Ffarrenrowry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, William (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Ingoldsby, Sir George (Protestant)Anglesey, Earl of (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Profitable land: 1067 plantation acres Forfeited: 1067 plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 43 English: 34 Irish: 9

Townland of FARRANRORY LOWER Down Survey Name: Ffarrenrowry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, William (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Ingoldsby, Sir George (Protestant)Anglesey, Earl of (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry

Townland of GORTNASCULLOGE Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of KYLEBALLYGALVAN Down Survey Name: Killmakenoge 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, William (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Minchin, Charles (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Profitable land: 168 plantation acres Forfeited: 168 plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 11 English: 11

Townland of BALLINGARRY LOWER Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Profitable land: 1903 plantation acres Forfeited: 1903 plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 7 English: 7

Townland of SPRINGFIELD (ED Ballyphilip) Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of KYLEBALLYGALVAN Down Survey Name: Killmakenoge 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, William (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Minchin, Charles (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Profitable land: 168 plantation acres Forfeited: 168 plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 11 English: 11

Townland of ARDRAGH Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of JESSFIELD Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of TINOCK Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of BALLINGARRY UPPER Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 53 English: 48 Irish: 5 Titulado: Jeffrey Fanning, William Fanning

Townland of GLENGALL Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 12 English: 10 Irish: 2

Townland of BLACKCOMMON (ED Farranrory) Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of FOILMARNELL UPPER

Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of FOILMARNELL LOWER Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of AUGHNACRUMPANE Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres

Townland of HARLEYPARK Down Survey Name: Ballingarry 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, Jeffrey (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Forfeited: Jeffrey Fanning plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 25 English: 21 Irish: 4 Titulado: George Comerford, James Comerford

Townland of GORTFREE

Down Survey Name: Gurtfree 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Edmund (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Moore, Richard (Protestant) County: Tipperary Barony: Slevardargh and Compsy Parish: Ballingarry Profitable land: 186 plantation acres Forfeited: 186 plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 8 English: 8

Co Limerick:

King John's Castle and Thomond Bridge, Limeric...

King John’s Castle and Thomond Bridge, Limerick city. Ireton took Limerick in 1651 after a long siege (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Townland of BALLYSIMON (Dickson) Down Survey Name: Ardmore 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Alderman (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): James Duke of York (Protestant) County: Limerick Barony: Limrick Liberties Parish: Derrygalvan Profitable land: 44 plantation acres Forfeited: 44 plantation acres

Townland of KEYANNA

Down Survey Name: Shedfeackle

1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Alderman (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): James Duke of York (Protestant) County: Limerick Barony: Limrick Liberties Parish: Derrygalvan Profitable land: 251 plantation acres Forfeited: 251 plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 47 English: 47

Townland of RATHBANE SOUTH Down Survey Name: Rathbane 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Dominick (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Wilson, Sir Ralph (Protestant) County: Limerick Barony: Limrick Liberties Parish: St Nicholas

Townland of INCHMORE Down Survey Name: Ardnevokes 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Dominick (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Winkworth, John (Protestant) County: Limerick Barony: Limrick Liberties Parish: St Nicholas Unprofitable land: 98 plantation acres Profitable land: 54 plantation acres Forfeited: 54 plantation acres

Townland of CRABB’S-LAND Down Survey Name: Skennaboy 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Dominick (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Wilson, Sir Ralph (Protestant) County: Limerick Barony: Limrick Liberties Parish: St Nicholas Profitable land: 21 plantation acres Forfeited: 21 plantation acres

Townland of Fanningstown (ED Fedmore)

Down Survey Name: Fanninstowne 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Edmond (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Ormesby, Sir Edward (Protestant) County: Limerick Barony: Coshma Parish: Ballingaddy Profitable land: 360 plantation acres Forfeited: 360 plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 56 English: 49 Irish: 7 Titulado: Col John Bridges

Townland of BALLYSHONICKBANE

Down Survey Name: Ballyshanikine 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Glyn & Nicholas (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Bury, Phineas (Protestant) County: Limerick Barony: Kenry Parish: Killcornane Profitable land: 318 plantation acres Forfeited: 318 plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 10 English: 10

Townland of GLASCURRAM

Down Survey Name: Garranyweelanbeg 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, John (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Evans, George (Protestant) County: Limerick Barony: Pobblebrian Parish: Killkeady Profitable land: 40 plantation acres Forfeited: 40 plantation acres

Townland of GARRANE (ED Garrane)

Down Survey Name: Garrannemannagh 1641 Owner(s): Ffanning of Limerick, Ffrancis (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Ingram, Sir Arthur (Protestant)Newenham, John (Protestant) County: Limerick Barony: Pobblebrian Parish: Monesterneany Profitable land: 197 plantation acres Forfeited: 197 plantation acres

Co Clare:

Townland of COOLSHINGAUN

Down Survey Name: Cregneseigh 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Dominick (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Inchiquin, Earl of (Protestant) County: Clare Barony: Inchiquin Parish: Disert Profitable land: 30 plantation acres Forfeited: 30 plantation acres

Townland of BOOLINRUDDA

Down Survey Name: Ballylerenan 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, Dominick (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Inchiquin, Earl of (Protestant) County: Clare Barony: Inchiquin Parish: Disert Unprofitable land: 4 plantation acres Profitable land: 36 plantation acres Forfeited: 36 plantation acres

Co Kilkenny:

Kilkenny Castle. The Irish Confederate capital...

Kilkenny Castle. The Irish Confederate capital of Kilkenny fell to Cromwell in 1650 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Townland of CROAN

Down Survey Name: Crannebeg 1641 Owner(s): Fanning, James (Catholic) 1670 Owner(s): Halsey, William (Protestant) County: Kilkenny Barony: Knocktopher Parish: Aghaviller Profitable land: 161 plantation acres Forfeited: 161 plantation acres 1659 Census Total: 10 English: 10

1670 Fanning Land Owners:

Co Galway

Townland of SHANTALLOW (Ballymoe By)

Down Survey Name: Shanbollye 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, William (Catholic)Ffanning, William (Catholic) County: Galway Barony: Bellamoe Parish: Cloniberne Unprofitable land: 16 plantation acres Profitable land: 62 plantation acres Forfeited: 62 plantation acres

Townland of BALLYEDMOND

Down Survey Name: Ahellundedmond 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, William (Catholic)Ffanning, William (Catholic) County: Galway Barony: Bellamoe Parish: Cloniberne Unprofitable land: 171 plantation acres Profitable land: 68 plantation acres Forfeited: 68 plantation acres

Townland of CLOONAGAWNAGH

Down Survey Name: Cappanyguine 1670 Owner(s): Fanning, William (Catholic)Ffanning, William (Catholic) County: Galway Barony: Bellamoe Parish: Cloniberne Unprofitable land: 328 plantation acres Profitable land: 158 plantation acres Forfeited: 158 plantation acres

Co Tipperary:

Jeffrey Fanning owned 21 properties. These are listed in the above records from the Down Survey site.

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Loughmore Parish Index to Burials in Loughmore and Templeree Graveyards

English: View of Loughmoe Castle from the old ...

View of Loughmoe Castle from the old churchyard. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I have a copy of  Loughmore Parish Index to Burials in Loughmore and Templeree Graveyards and can do lookups. The original is in the Thurles Library. The National Library in Dublin does not have a copy.

There is also a list of transcribed headstones at Loughmore Cemetery by Sue Grieves 2000-2001. Doesn’t include all the graves as in the Index but has lots of information from the headstones.

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